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Whether you’d want to inform, persuade or entertain people, it’s good to know what’s in their minds. In the same way that great jokes fell flat when you’ve heard them before, knowing what your audience already is the key to crafting great speeches.

This information allows us to separate what do we need to say and what do we not need to say to the audience. One suggestion is to put what audience already know in the intro, then build the speech on what the audience don’t need to know.

We will use two tools today. An empathy map used by UX designers and theory on how to construct an argument from Stephen Toulmin.

(Watch the video for details)

An argument consists of:

– Claim – what you want the audience to remember
– Support – what can explain the claim
– Warrant – the how and why

What can happen after you do the exercise?

Your audience may already know everything you’ve got to say or that you find out you need much more time to get the audience to get them to where you want.


In the next video, we will talk about how to use common structure to speak well in the everyday situation.